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Reducing Intergroup Conflict Through Leadership Assignment

Rationale for research in this area

Intergroup associations between two or more groups and their respective members are often essential to ensure the work quality, mandatory to run a successful business (Belak, 1998). Most of the time, groups inter-relate to achieve the organization's goals and objectives, but regrettably conflict occurs. Therefore previously the researches had been made to combat these problems of intergroup conflicts (Michael A. Hogg, 2001). The purpose of this research is to reduce this intergroup conflict through forming a wise leadership that will be neutral among these groups. Online essay writing help by Assignment Writer UK.

Aims and objectives

The main objective of this research will be to conduct an experimental study on intergroup relations, with emphasis on the reduction of conflict between groups. This would be done by the witnessing strategies that help a leader to build such an identity that embraces perfect leadership pomposity, identity personification, and boundary spanning unions (Ireland, 2014). By this research, one will be getting the knowledge of the factors which are the essentials for running an organization under number of groups with diverse identities, culture, languages, ethics and nature without having any further internal dispute. Order assignment writing services for all your writing needs

Literature Review

            In the past, measures to combat the problems of intergroup conflicts were initially proposed by social scientists as well as by such people as administrators, community officials, policy-makers, and educators by the introduction of legal authorizations; creation of occasions for social and other contacts among followers of conflicting groups; distribution of correct evidence to break down false biases and critical stereotypes; entreaties to the moral ideals for being fair and brotherhood; and even the introduction of severe physical activity to produce purification by releasing unexpressed frustrations and violent multiplexes in the unconscious (Dovidio, 2009). However, seemingly these conflicts increased with the time according to strength of groups.

Therefore to address this challenge Muzafer Sherif (1958) conducted an experimental study on the intergroup relations, with emphasis on the reduction of conflict between groups by introducing two individual groups with specified conditions for interaction which were than brought into functional contact in conditions supposed by the members of the respective groups as competitive and frustrating. The research concluded that the measure that proved effective in reducing tension between groups was the introduction of goals which were captivatingly shared by members of the groups and which required the co-operative efforts of all (Sherif, 1958). For assistance buy dissertation online.

            Further to which, Matthew Montoya& Scott T. Wolf (2007) made two experiments first interactions between group leaders then interactions between individuals in a mixed-motive setting. Experiment 1 found that responsible leaders were more viable than individuals. Consistent with the idea that being unaccountable to the in-group implies establishing pressure to be cooperative and that fault disposed to provides motivation to be moral, experiment 2 found that when guilt proneness was in height, unaccountable leaders were less modest than accountable leaders and did not differ meaningfully from individuals. In other words, the vigorous interindividual–intergroup discontinuity effect was eliminated when groups had unaccountable leaders who were high in fault proneness (Richard D. Ashmore, 2001).

            Hogg, van Knippenberg, and Rast (2012) established an official theory of intergroup leadership, which argues that actual intergroup leadership have need of the leader to develop and indorse an intergroup relational identity that is a social identity defined in terms of the cooperative and mutually promotative relationship between subgroups.

Research Methodology

            The project will be based on the explanatory research design and mixed analysis approach. By using the explanatory research design, the research will explore the causal relationship between the primary factors associated with rise in intergroup conflicts and the different resolutions preferred at initial level (Khan, 2011). In other words, through exploratory research design, relationship between intergroup conflicts and effectiveness of the leaders would be considered.  This relationship will help in reaching towards the appropriate conclusion. On the other hand, in order to explore the mentioned relationship, the research will be based on mixed research approach methods. Both qualitative and quantitative findings associated with two research variables i.e. intergroup conflicts and functions of leadership over these conflicts would be collected and analysed in order to present a broader analysis of the problem (Kothari, 2004). Get coursework writing service from experts

Qualitative findings may include key factors of initiation of these types of conflicts and impact of them on the organization goals. On the other hand, quantitative findings would include statistical investigations on the current ratio of these conflicts. Intergroup conflict rates in different organizations differ significantly. The survey would be made on the group conflict ratio in different sizes of organizations (Wayne Goddard, 2004). 

Overview on Intergroup Conflict

            One of the most projecting reasons for intergroup conflict is simply the nature of the group and other reasons may be work interdependence, goal alterations, differences in insights, and the increased demand for authorities. Also, individual members of a group become the reason for the initiation of group conflict. Any respective group symbolises various qualities, values, or unique personalities that are created, followed, and even protected. These cliques can then distinguish'us' from'them” (Belak, 1998). Members who disrupt important aspects of the group, and especially outsiders, who offend these ideals in some way, normally receive some type of remedial or cautious response. Relationships between groups often reflect the views they hold of each other's appearances (Fisher, 2012). When groups share some interests and their directions seem parallel, each group may view the other certainly; however, if the activities and goals of groups differ, they may view each other in a negative manner. When trying to avoid intergroup conflict, it is important to consider the history of associations between the groups in conflict (Bornstein, 2003). Hire the best  professional writing services.

            Changes occur due to the intergroup conflict, both within the groups in conflict and between them. Within the groups, the members will usually overlook individual differences in an exertion to unite against the other side, and with this intensive effort the focus is on the task (Steven Breckler, 2005). The group can become more efficient and effective at what they do, and members can become more faithful, closely following group standards. Problems can occur, however, when the group loses focus of the organization's goals and becomes closed off from other groups (Takacs, 2015).

Research problems

            Problems that occurred during the researches were to distinguish between the numerous types of the intergroup conflicts as some conflict called the functional conflict is considered positive, because it enhances performance and identifies weaknesses while dysfunctional conflict, however, is clash or interface between groups that harms the organization or delays in achieving  goals or objectives (Tropp, 2012). Get online research paper from professionals

Discussion

In shaping the mutual assertiveness of members of two groups toward one another, the limiting factor is the nature of functional relations between the groups (Chand, 2015). The groups meaningfully meant to be competing to reach some goal or some dynamic prize so that the success of one group necessarily means the failure of the other (Rahim, 2015). One group claims on another group in the way of management, supervisory or exploiting them, in the way of taking over their actual or presumed rights or properties (Ingram, 2015). On the other hand, groups may have harmonizing goals, such that each may achieve its goal without interference to the accomplishment of the other and even aiding this accomplishment (intergroup conflict, 2015). Get thesis writing help by professionals.

Also the nature of relations between groups is the limiting condition, numerous other factors have to be brought into the depiction for a satisfactory accounting of the resulting intergroup tendencies and intergroup products (such as norms for treatment of the other group, stereotypes of one's own group and the other group, etc.) (Weiss, 2011). Among these factors are the kind of control, the degree of unity, the kind of norms usually within each group (Rast, 2015). Mutual intergroup assessments of their relative strengths and resources, and the logical level attained in assessing their worth and rights in relation to others need special mention among these factors. The obstructions, deficiencies and the satisfactions in the life histories of the individual members also have to be considered (Madsen, 2002).

            Of course leadership is the most important part in shaping up any intergroup behavior, the standards of social distance are count, similarly the structure and the practices within the groups, personal lacking of individual members (Morton Deutsch, 2011). But none of these individually regulates the tendency of intergroup behavior at a given time. They all contribute to the constructing an intergroup behavior, but with different comparative masses at different times. Intergroup behavior at a given time can be explained only in terms of the entire frame of reference in which all these various factors function by relying on each other (Green, 2014).

References

Belak, T., 1998.Intergroup Conflict in the Workplace,s.l.: mediate.com.

Bornstein, G., 2003. Intergroup Conflict: Individual, Group, and Collective Interests.Personality and Social Psychology Review,Volume 7, p. 129.

Chand, S., 2015.What is the Importance of Leadership in an Organization?.
[Accessed 2 march 2015].

Dovidio, J. F., 2009. Cooperation and Conflict within Groups: Bridging.Journal of Social Issues,Volume 65.

Fisher, R., 2012.The Social Psychology of Intergroup and International Conflict Resolution.s.l.:Springer Science& Business Media.

Green, C. D., 2014.Intergroup Conflict and Cooperation: The Robbers Cave Experiment.
[Accessed 2 march 2015].

Ingram, D., 2015.The Importance of Leadership in Business.
[Accessed 2 march 2015].

intergroup conflict, 2015.social psychology.
[Accessed 2 march 2015].

Ireland, K., 2014.How to Reduce Intergroup Conflict,s.l.: livestrong.com.

Khan, 2011.Research Methodology.New Dehli: APH Publishing.

Kothari, C. R., 2004.Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques.Dehli: New Age International.

Madsen, J. A., 2002. African American Leaders’ Perceptions.PEABODY JOURNAL OF EDUCATION,Volume 77, pp. 35-58.

Michael A. Hogg, D. A., 2001.Intergroup Relations: Essential Readings.s.l.:Psychology Press.

MICHAEL A. HOGG, D. V. K.&. D. E. R. I., 2012. INTERGROUP LEADERSHIP IN ORGANIZATIONS: LEADING ACROSS GROUP AND ORGANIZATIONAL BOUNDARIES.Academy of Management Review,Volume 37, p. 232.

Morton Deutsch, P. T. C. E. C. M., 2011.The Handbook of Conflict Resolution: Theory and Practice.s.l.:John Wiley& Sons.

Rahim, M. A., 2015.Managing Conflict in Organizations.s.l.:Transaction Publishers.

Rast, D. E., 2015.Intergroup Leadership: Leading Across Conflicting Social Identities.
[Accessed 2 march 2015].

Richard D. Ashmore, R. D. A. L. J. J. D. W. L. J. D. W., 2001.Social Identity, Intergroup Conflict, and Conflict Reduction.s.l.:Oxford University Press.

Saunders, M., Lewis, P.& Thornhill, A., 2009.Research Methods for Business Students.s.l.:Financial Times Prentice Hall.

Sherif, M., 1958. Superordinate goals in the reduction of intergroup conflict..The American Journal of sociology.

Steven Breckler, J. O. E. W., 2005.Social Psychology Alive.s.l.:Cengage Learning.

Takacs, K., 2015.Models of Intergroup Conflict.
[Accessed 2 march 2015].

Tropp, L., 2012.The Oxford Handbook of Intergroup Conflict.s.l.:Oxford University Press.

Wayne Goddard, S. M., 2004.Research Methodology: An Introduction.s.l.:Juta and Company Ltd.

Weiss, B., 2011.Intergroup Conflicts and Their Resolution: A Social Psychological Perspective.s.l.:Psychology Press.

Wolf, R. M. M. a. S. T., 2007. Reduction of Interindividual–Intergroup Discontinuity: The Role of Leader.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,Volume 93, p. 250.


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